Definition Acronyms


Biointensive IPM
A systems approach to pest management based on an understanding of biological processes to minimize risk from pests.

Label used on food to show consumers that the product has been grown with a certain environmentally conscious method.

Integrated Pest Management
A strategy generally viewed as a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical methods so that risks to economic well being, human health and the environment are minimize.

IPM Roadmap
Evolving document that identifies strategic directions for IPM research, implementation and measurement needed to ensure that the economic, health and environmental benefits of IPM adoption are realized.

Minor Use
The minor use of pesticides includes the use of pesticides on crops where the total U.S. acreage is less than 300,000 acres. Minor use also applies to pesticide uses which do not provide sufficient economic incentives for a registrant to support initial or continuing registration.

An incorporated organization, in which shareholders or trustees do not financially benefit, that exists to serve educational, research, charitable or public interest activities.

An overall, end result of a program often compared against originally envisaged goals.

Performance Measure
A quantifiable variable that assesses progress toward performance goals


AFO-CAFO: Animal Feeding Operation – Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation
These are large agricultural operations involving hundreds if not thousands of animals.

AMS: USDA Agricultural Marketing Service
This agency is responsible for grading commodities, conducting researching on commodities and providing information about commodities.

APG: Annual Performance Goal
A targeted activity that a program or organization hopes to achieve.

APM: Annual Performance Measure
A quantifiable variable that assesses progress toward annual performance goals.

ARS: USDA Agricultural Research Service
One of the major research agencies within the USDA. The agency conducts research to solve common problems affecting agricultural producers.

BPPD: EPA Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division
Personnel in this office conduct risk/benefit assessments and risk management studies for microbial pesticides, biochemical pesticides and plant incorporated pesticides.

CAR: Crops at Risk program
A USDA CSREES program that funds multiple tactic IPM strategies that lessen the economic impact of growers no longer being able to use certain Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) banned pesticides.

CARAT: EPA/USDA Committee to Advise on Reassessment and Tolerance
EPA and USDA advisory committee that provides guidance on strategic approaches for pest management planning, transition and tolerance reassessment for pesticides as required by the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA).

CERCLA: Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act
This act, commonly referred to as the Superfund Act, taxed chemical and petroleum industries for the sole purpose of cleaning up hazardous waste sites.

CIG: USDA NRCS Conservation Innovation Grants
Program that uses Environmental Quality Incentives Program funds to increase the adoption of technologies that address natural resource concerns.

CSREES: USDA Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service
Agency that supports research, education and extension programs in the Land Grant University System and other research partners.

EQIP: USDA NRCS Environmental Quality Incentives Program
A voluntary conservation program for farmers and ranchers that concurrently promotes agricultural production and environmental quality. The program offers financial and technical assistance to eligible participants on eligible agricultural land.

ERS: USDA Economic Research Service
A research agency within USDA. The agency conducts economic analyses that support a safe food supply and a competitive agricultural system.

EXTOXNET: Extension Toxicology Network
An online database of toxicology data that is a joint effort of the University of California-Davis, Oregon State University, Michigan State University, Cornell University and the University of Idaho.

FQPA: Food Quality Protection Act
This act amended the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act as well as the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. FQPA requires a stricter safety standard that must be applied to all pesticides used on foods.

GMP: Grants Management Plan
A report, often issued by EPA or other funding organization, ensuring that grant programs meet rigorous management and fiduciary standards.

GPRA: Government Performance Results Act
This act requires federal agencies to develop strategic plans, performance measures, annual performance plans and a system of performance reporting.

IR-4: Minor Crop Pest Management Inter-Region 4 program
Program that enhances the adoption of biopesticides in agricultural and non-agricultural settings.

MACRP: Midcontinent Agricultural Chemical Research Project
A U.S. Geological Survey research effort that identifies factors that influence the dispersal of agricultural chemicals in surface and ground waters. Research in this project also analyzes the effects in small streams to large rivers.

MBT: USDA CSREES competitive grants: Methyl Bromide Transitions program
Grant program that supports research, education and extension actives to alternatives to methyl bromide.

NAPRA: NRCS National Agricultural Pesticide Environmental Risk Analysis
One of two official NRCS methods for assessing the environmental risks of pesticide use. The analysis evaluates the potential loss of pesticides to ground and surface waters by modeling pesticide movement, toxicity and crop management techniques under specific climatological and soil conditions.

NASS: USDA National Agricultural Statistics Survey
Agency that publishes various statistics for agricultural practices and commodities.

NOx: Nitrogen Oxides
Major form of air pollution that contributes to smog development.

NRCS: USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service
Agency that provides guidance on how to maintain, preserve and improve natural resources.

NRI: USDA CSREES competitive grants: National Research Initiative
Grant program for peer reviewed research that solves challenges to the nation’s system of food, fiber and natural resources.

OAR: EPA Office of Air and Radiation
Office that develops regulations and policies for controlling air pollution and radiation exposure.

OCHP: EPA Office of Children’s Health Protection
Office that supports EPA’s efforts to protect children’s health from environmental threats.

OECA: EPA Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance
Office that increases compliance and decreases threats to public health and the environment by employing an integrated approach of compliance assistance, compliance incentives and enforcement.

OGD: Office of Grants and Debarment
Office that supervises the implementation of EPA’s Grant Management Plan to ensure that these funds are used efficiently and effectively.

OIG: EPA Office of Inspector General
Independent office within EPA that performs audits, evaluations and investigations of EPA and its contractors.

OMB: Office of Management and Budget
Agency that assists the President of the United States in preparing the federal budget and supervising its administration in executive branch agencies.

OPMP: USDA Office of Pest Management Policy
Office that coordinates USDA’s role in the pesticide regulatory process and develops alternative pest management tools that may be needed as a result of regulatory change. Office also facilitates the production of Pest Management Strategic Plans (PMSPs).

OPPTS: EPA Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances
Office that promotes pollution prevention and the public’s right to know about chemical risks. Office also evaluates pesticides and chemicals to protect public health and the environment.

ORD: EPA Office of Research and Development
Office that provides leading edge research on ways to prevent pollution, protect human health and reduce risk.

ORG: USDA CSREES competitive grants: Organic Transitions Program
Funds integrated research, education and extension projects at degree granting institutions. The program funds projects that deal with pest management in organic systems and projects that focus on overall system health and its effects on pest populations.

OW: EPA Office of Water
EPA office that protects water supplies from pollution.

OWOW: EPA Office of Wetlands, Oceans and Watersheds
Office that promotes a watershed approach to water resources and aquatic ecosystems protection.

P2: EPA Pollution Prevention
Currently used as a way to design alternative strategies to protect public health and the environment. It is part of new EPA approaches that focus attention on reducing risks from environmental pollutants, promote environmental justice and advocate urban environmental quality.

PAMS: Prevention, Avoidance, Monitoring and Suppression (to measure IPM adoption)
A management strategy for IPM. Prevention is the practice of keeping pests from infesting crops. Avoidance is a cultural practice taken to avoid the impact of pests. Monitoring is the use of various methods to monitor pests as well as approaches that measure things like soil quality. Suppression is an active management protocol to decrease pest populations.

PAN: Pesticide Action Network
Organization committed to replacing pesticide use with other alternatives. This organization also maintains an online toxicity database.

PDP: USDA Pesticide Data Program
A national database program that collects information about pesticide residues on agricultural commodities, especially those consumed by infants and children.

PM Centers: USDA Regional Pest Management Centers
Centers that emphasize research and extension efforts on developing safer pest management strategies to farmers and ranchers. The Centers also serve to strengthen ties between the USDA, EPA and the grower community.

PM: particulate matter
General term for a mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets found in air.

PM10: particulate matter 10 microns in size in a cubic meter of air
These are defined as coarse particles and generally originate from sources such as vehicles traveling on unpaved roads, materials handling, crushing/grinding operations, and windblown dust.

PMAP: USDA CSREES competitive grants: Pest Management Alternatives Program
This research grant program supports farmers implementing projects that respond to environmental and regulatory issues confronting agriculture. These grants provide farmers with alternative strategies to replace pesticide strategies that are under consideration for regulatory action.

PMSP: Pest Management Strategic Plan
Plans developed by growers, commodity groups, land grant researchers, processors, crop consultants and the EPA that identify pest management needs and priorities for individual commodities.

PPRS: Performance Plan Reporting System (used by CSREES IPM extension)
A web-based system that provides access to information about Integrated Pest Management and Pesticide Safety Education efforts occurring at land grant universities through the Cooperative Extension Service. Online information includes descriptions of program plans, accomplishments, as well as key indicators that measure progress toward program objectives.

QAPPS: Quality Assurance Project Plans
Detailed documents ensuring that environmental data used in decision-making is accurate and appropriate for a given project.

RAMP: USDA CSREES competitive grants: Risk Avoidance and Mitigation Program
Program that provides funds to enhance the development and implementation of innovative integrated pest management strategies, especially those strategies that address crop productivity, profitability, environmental quality, and human health.

RCRA: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
Legislation that gave the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency the authority to control hazardous waste from the “cradle-to-grave.” This includes the generation, transportation, treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous waste. The Act also provided a framework for the management of non-hazardous wastes.

RFA: Request for Applications
A notice soliciting grant applications for available funds in a general research area.

RFP: Request for Proposals
A notice soliciting grant proposals for available funds in a more specific research area.

RGI: EPA Regional Geographic Initiative
Program that supports projects in a geographic region or area rather than for a specific pollutant or environmental sector. The program provides grants for projects identified by an EPA Region as a high priority and usually include projects dealing with high human health or ecosystem risk that also have a significant potential for risk reduction.

RMA: USDA Risk Management Agency
Agency helping growers manage business risk through market based risk management solutions (usually through some type of crop insurance).

SAI: Strategic Agricultural Initiative
Program developed by EPA to support growers transitioning to new pest management strategies as a result of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA).

SARE: USDA CSREES Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education
Competitive grants program promoting farming systems that are profitable, environmentally sound and good for communities.

SLA: State Lead Agencies
State agencies in charge of federal initiatives or programs within a state boundary.

Smith-Lever 3d funds:
Funds given from USDA CSREES to IPM projects in states.

SO2: Sulfur dioxide
Air pollutant that contributes to acid rain, breathing problems and visibility problems in national park areas.

TMDL: Total Maximum Daily Loads
A calculation of the maximum amount of a pollutant that a waterbody can receive and still meet water quality standards.

TRI: Toxics Release Inventory
A publicly available EPA database containing information on toxic chemical releases and other waste management activities reported by federal facilities and covered industry groups.

USGS: U.S. Geological Survey
Scientific agency within the Department of the Interior that provides scientific understanding about natural resource conditions, issues and problems.

VOCs: Volatile Organic Compounds
Organic compounds emitted as gases from certain solids and liquids that have a significant effect on human health.

WATERSHEDS: Water, Soil and Hydrologic Decision Support System
A web based decision support and educational software system that assists managers of agricultural watersheds in identifying water quality problems and selecting appropriate nonpoint source pollution control measures.

WIN-PST: USDA NRCS Windows Pesticide Screening Tool
An NRCS (Natural Resources Conservation Service) pesticide environmental risk screening tool used to evaluate the potential of pesticides to move with water and eroded soil/organic matter and affect non-target organisms.