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Environmental Impact Quotient


Environmental Impact Quotient

Introduction :

J. Kovach, C. Petzoldt, J. Degni, and J. Tette developed the EIQ model. EIQ calculates a pesticide's risk to farm workers, consumers, and terrestrial organisms based on a ranking methodology. In this methodology, toxicity information and chemical parameter information are ranked. Then, these ranks are manipulated in equations to arrive at a final EIQ score.

Reference:

  • Kovach, J., Petzoldt, C., Degni, J., Tette, J. 1992. A method to measure the environmental impact of pesticides. New York's Food and Life Sciences Bulletin 139, 1-8.


Equations :

  • The final EIQ equation is :
    EIQ = (C(DT*5)+(DT*P))+((C*(S+P)2*SY)+(L))
    +((F*R)+(D*(S+P)/2*3)+(Z*P*3)+(B*P*5)))/3
    The final EIQ score can then be manipulated with the application rate of the pesticide's active ingredient (in lbs/acre) to arrive at a field use score.


  • EIP Field Use Rating = EIQ Score * Application Rate
    The EIQ model emphasizes a ranking methodology. This ranking scheme has ten different sections detailed below.


    1. Mode of Action :
      Rank
      1
      non-systemic
      1
      all herbicides
      3
      systemic

    2. Acute Dermal LD50 Rats/Rabbits :
      Rank
      1
      >2000 mg/kg
      3
      200-2000 mg/kg
      5
      0-200 mg/kg

    3. Long Term Health Effects :
      Rank
      1
      little / none
      3
      possible
      5
      definite

    4. Plant Surface Residue Half Life :
      Rank
      1
      1-2 weeks
      3
      2-4 weeks
      5
      > 4 weeks
      1
      pre-emergent herbicides

    5. Soil Residue Half Life :
      Rank
      1
      < 30 days
      3
      30-100 days
      5
      > 100 days

    6. Fish LC50 :
      Rank
      1
      > 10 ppm
      2
      1-10 ppm
      3
      <1 ppm

    7. Bird LC50 :
      Rank
      1
      > 1000 ppm
      3
      100-1000 ppm
      5
      1-100 ppm

    8. Bee Toxicity :
      Rank
      1
      relatively non toxic
      3
      moderately toxic
      5
      highly toxic

    9. Beneficial Toxicity :
      Rank
      1
      low impact
      3
      moderate impact
      5
      severe impact
      3
      post-emergent herbicide

    10. Groundwater/Runoff Potential :
      Rank
      1
      small
      3
      medium
      5
      large

List of Symbols :

Symbol
Description & Units
application rate amount of pesticide a.i. applied (lbs/acre)
B ranked beneficial arthropod toxicity
C chronic toxicity classification
D ranked LC50 mallard value
DT ranked dermal rat LD50 value
F ranked LC50 fish value
L ranked leaching potential of the pesticide a.i.
P ranked plant surface half-life value
R ranked runoff potential of the pesticide a.i.
S ranked soil half-life value
SY systemic pesticide classification
Z ranked LD50 bee value


Analysis :

The various numbers used in the EIQ equation are weighting factors used by the authors to place more emphasis on certain pesticide characteristics. These weighting factors may reflect the original design of EIQ to only consider common fruit and vegetable pesticides. Users of this model should also pay particular attention to the ranking methodology. For example, with this methodology the user will often have to conduct further research to distinguish a pesticide that is has "medium runoff potential" from a pesticide that has a "large runoff potential."

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